Activities - Industrial Risk
Prediction and prevention activities are based on an increasingly close link between civil protection and scientific research thanks to: new technological systems for collecting and processing information; data processing centres able to report as soon as possible the likelihood of catastrophic events; the development of risk maps; the promotion of regulatory and technical tools aimed at preventing and mitigating damage.
The reference norm establishes prediction and prevention activities aimed at reducing industrial risk: both for the risk related to the probability of an industrial accident occurring, as well as the one related to its consequences.
In the first place dangerous substances are identified, including those classified as a hazard to the environment, possibly causing serious accidents and exposure to the risk of emissions, fires or explosions.
The industrial plants requiring control by a person responsible, described in the norm as a “safety officer”, are likewise established.
The safety officer in an industrial plant is assigned to many risk prediction and prevention-related duties. All duties performed by the officer are notified to the Region, Prefect and local Town Council.
Competent centres contribute towards the work of preventing industrial risks: public bodies engaged in the national civil protection system to develop research projects and set up means of support for handling emergencies.
The principal centres competent for industrial risk are the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research – ISPRA, Institute for prevention and safety at work place - ISPESL, National Council for Scientific Research – CNR and Istituto Superiore di Sanità (government Health Institute) – ISS.
Techno-scientific advisory organizations
• Department of Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion, «La Sapienza» University, Rome;
• Inter-university Consortia for Prevention and Protection from Chemical-Industrial Risks comprising the Rome, Bologna, Pisa, Naples and Messina Universities;
• Operations and Research Unit for Chemical-Industrial Emergencies, «Venice Ca’ Foscari» University;
• Institute for Combustion Research, Naples;
• Mobility Design Research and Educational Unit – Design and planning of Mobility Management Systems and Services – Research Group for the Management and Safety of Milan Transport.
National Service components
The National Fire Brigade Corps conducts controls on factories considered at a serious accident risk. The latter prepares and promotes educational programmes, within the sphere of own competence and when available, on matters related to serious accident risks and provides technical advice to the Authority responsible for the prevention and control of industrial risks. Finally, in the event of an industrial accident, the latter participates to the work of handling the emergency.
As provided by decree law n. 334 of 1999, it is the duty of local public Authorities to prepare an internal emergency plan and another external to the factory, to guarantee a prompt and effective response and to protect public health and environment.
Internal emergency plan
The internal emergency plan – IEP is drawn up by the factory management and organizes the actions required to control the accident aided by its own teams and the fire brigade.
External emergency plan
The external emergency plan – EEP is drawn up by the responsible public Authority and organizes the civil protection response for reducing the effects of an accident on public health and environment. The zones at risk, alarms and behaviour to be adopted by the population in the event of an accident are indicated in the EEP. The plan may also include a closed-in shelter or evacuation.
The Department of Civil Protection, in agreement with the Joint Conference, has the task of drawing up the Guidelines for preparing an external emergency plan (ita)(273 Kb) and, with due regard to the competence of State administrations and local bodies, will verify that the EEP has been implemented by those responsible in the event of a major accident or an event beyond control and likely to cause an accident.
The guideline document, prepared by the Department of Civil Protection, is the operational instrument for processing and updating the External Emergency Plans for factories at major accident risk. The guidelines are addressed to sector operators – in Prefectures, Regions and local Bodies – engaged with emergency planning within the scope of industrial risk management, and to the managements of factories at major accident risk. The document provides the instructions required to draw up an emergency plan, capable of guaranteeing an effective response in the event of an industrial accident in an inhabited area. Drawing up an EEP is a complex delicate job both as to the objective of safety it intends to achieve as well as for involving the various competent institutions. The Prefect organizes meetings and drills whilst the external emergency Plan is being drawn up, to test the degree of knowledge about the procedures and the operational capacity of each subject involved and to encourage exchange of information amongst the organizations as well as amongst sector operators.
The Guidelines develop an External Emergency Plan scheme which, divided by sections and subjects to be covered, contains the basics of the plan to be drawn up. The first two sections of the scheme deal with subjects already covered by the best part of External Emergency Plans, whilst the intervention organizational Model section is an innovation introduced by this document. This organization model is based on a command and control system that receives the flow of information and data, from the time the emergency starts up until the plants are safe.
The Guidelines also deal with the subject of the language to adopt in drawing up the External Emergency Plans, with the object of encouraging uniformity throughout the country, facilitating the work of control and coordination conducted by the central and detached administrations engaged in external factory emergency planning activities.
Territorial mapping: zones at risk
Zone at maximum exposure
This is an area in the immediate vicinity to the factory and is generally exposed to serious permanent effects on health.
This is a zone where consequences of an accident are still serious, particularly for some categories at risk (children, elderly or ill people, pregnant women)
This is the zone furthest away from the accident, having effects that are not generally serious.